We document strong skill matching in Turkish firms’ production networks. Additionally, in the data, export demand shocks from rich countries increase firms’ skill intensity and their trade with skill-intensive domestic partners. We explain these patterns using a quantitative model with heterogeneous firms, quality choices, and endogenous networks. A counterfactual economy-wide export demand shock of 5% leads both exporters and nonexporters to upgrade quality, raising the average wage by 1.2%. This effect is nine times the effect in a scenario without interconnected quality choices. We use the model to study the conditions for the success of export promotion policies.


Fieler, Ana Cecília, Daniel Yi Xu, Banu Demir, and Kelly Kaili Yang. 2024. "O-Ring Production Networks." The Journal of Political Economy 132, no. 1: 200 - 247. https://doi.org/10.1086/725703.