A Focus on Gender Inequality

The cover of the 2023 EGC Annual Report
Read the 2022-23 Annual Report.

February 1, 2024

In 2024, more than 40% of the world's population will have national elections. 

This fact is particularly salient for the roughly 1.2 billion women who will be eligible to vote. The past century has witnessed a transformation of women’s opportunities, and it is no coincidence that over the same period, much of the world has shifted to systems of electoral representative democracy that mandate full female suffrage. 

However, globally, we are also seeing a resurgence of populist administrations that often emphasize a gendered division of labor and limits on individual agency, with women’s primary responsibilities relating to the care economy, irrespective of whether it reflects their preferences.

An economy where half of the population is effectively unable to reach its full potential will likely grow more slowly, overall, than one where women can compete in the labor market on equal terms and where the costs of reproductive labor are collectively shared. 

EGC researchers are exploring a more comprehensive and inclusive vision of growth. In this context, the 2023 Annual Report has a thematic focus on gender inequality. We invite you to read about this work – as well as the EGC community’s research, programming, teaching, and mentoring across a broad range of areas of international development. Please feel to free email us at egc@yale.edu with any thoughts or suggestions on our priorities and direction in the coming years.


Rohini Pande                                                                                   Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan     
Henry J. Heinz II Professor of Economics                       Deputy Director, Economic Growth Center
Director, Economic Growth Center

Recent Events

Firms, Trade and Development Conference

How do interactions between markets and firms affect economic growth? On October 19-20, 2023, researchers shared recent findings on this topic at Yale and the London School of Economics (LSE) as part of the 2023 Firms, Trade, and Development Conference, a collaborative effort between EGC’s Markets and Development Initiative and the International Growth Centre.

Yale Climate, Environment & Economic Growth Conference

What is the latest research on the challenges of maintaining economic progress – and improvements in human welfare – while remaining within environmental boundaries that will sustain those improvements? In a collaborative effort with the Yale School of the Environment, the Tobin Center for Economic Policy, and Yale Planetary Solutions, EGC hosted the Yale Climate, Environment & Economic Growth Conference on November 9-10, 2023. Day 1 focused on "The Future of Growth in the Climate Transition" and featured a keynote address by 2019 Nobel Laureate Esther Duflo.

Rule and Resistance in Colonial Spanish America

What were the effects of Spanish colonial institutions on long-term development in the Americas? A conference sponsored by the "Bridging the Atlantic: Migrations and their Legacies" project on December 8-9, 2023, examined the economic effects of colonial institutions and how populations were able to subvert, resist, negotiate, or co-opt them for their own purposes, sometimes in unexpected ways.

EGC Voices in Development

This podcast series explores issues related to sustainable development and economic justice in low- and middle-income countries.

Season 2 Episode 1

Season 2 Episode 1 features EGC’s Nicholas Ryan discussing the challenges low- and middle-income countries face in achieving environmentally sustainable economic growth.

Season 2 Episode 2

Season 2 Episode 2, recorded at the Yale Climate, Environment & Economic Growth Conference, features Kelsey Jack of UCSB discussing climate adaptation methods in Niger.

EGC Affiliate Spotlight

Maria Kogelnik

Despite progress in gender equality, women still face barriers that prevent them from attaining decision-making roles in organizations. Research by EGC Postdoctoral Associate Maria Kogelnik offers a new explanation: the gender gap in persistence.

Latest research

EGC Research

David Argente and Diana Van Patten on barriers to digital currency adoption in El Salvador; Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg on the role of demand-side constraints in development; José-Antonio Espín-Sánchez on using theory to understand firms' market entry decisions; Giovanni Maggi on the influence of lobbying on international regulatory cooperation.

Upcoming Events

Announcing the 33rd Annual Kuznets Memorial Lecture

Christopher Udry, the Robert E. and Emily King Professor of Economics at Northwestern University and former EGC Director, will return to Yale to deliver the Kuznets lecture on April 4, 2023. The lecture will focus on agriculture and development.

Conference Announcement: Charting the Future of Economics, Governance, and Economic Development in the United States and Beyond

What is the future direction of multidisciplinary research in history, economics, and public policy in the U.S. and globally? The upcoming “Charting the Future” conference, scheduled for April 26-27, 2024, draws inspiration from EGC affiliate Professor Naomi Lamoreaux’s significant contributions in areas that include the organization of firms and corporations, innovation and patents, and archival research.